10 GOOD AND 4 BAD Functions of DHT Hormone (Di-Hydro-Testosterone)

In today’s post we will look into the positive and negative effects or functions of DHT – Dihydrotestosterone in our body.

We have done so many posts and videos on DHT and hair loss and most of you may develop misconceptions that DHT is some evil androgen hormone that serves no purpose in the body but to make our prostates bigger and cause male pattern baldness

Let’s First look into the 10 Positive effects of DHT and lastly the Negative effects. All research article links related to this topic are provided in the description link below.

  1. During Embryogenesis or Foetus development, DHT is needed for sexual differentiation into a male foetus.
  2. During Puberty, DHT is critical to the development of the penis and prostate in men.
  3. After Puberty, DHT is essential for development of male features like body hair,facial hair, pubic hair, muscle growth, and a deep voice.
  4. In Adults, DHT is essential for the development and maintenance of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles and contributes to the volume of semen.
  5. Libido and Erections: Here there are lot of controversies that the primary hormone needed for the drive and erections is testosterone and not DHT. But the fact of the matter is DHT is also important due to its effects on the central nervous system that provides increased neurological efficiency (strength), and increased resistance to psychological and physical stress. Hence we notice depression and loss of libido in a small percentage of patients treated with DHT blockers like finasteride for hair loss.
  6. Blood Sugar Control and Obesity: According to a study, it may lower blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes in males with improved insulin-sensitivity and reduces the body fat and controls obesity.
  7. Improves Memory: A study showed Men between the ages of 34 and 70 showed improvements in memory when treated with DHT skin patches.
  8. Muscles and Bones: Studies have shown that DHT levels correlate with the Muscle Power as well as muscle mass, though the main hormone responsible for muscle and bone development is testosterone. And increased DHT levels are associated with higher bone density in men.
  9. Heart and DHT: Increased levels of DHT were associated with lower amounts of fat deposits in the hearts and coronary arteries of men and hence lesser chance of a coronary artery disease.
  10. Depression and Anxiety: The anti-anxiety effect of DHT and testosterone are due to the actions of DHT on the central nervous system. This is the reason why DHT blockers like finasteride may induce depression in as small percentage of hair loss patients on long term use.

Now let’s List out the Negative or Harmful effects of DHT on our body.

  1. Male Pattern Baldness or Androgenetic Alopecia. Yes as discussed in our previous episodes, its proven that Higher levels of DHT act on the DHT receptors located on hair follicles in scalp and cause miniaturization of the hair follicles and ultimately kills the hair follicle. Of course this depends on the sensitivity of hair follicles on DHT and your genes.
  2. Acne and excessive sebum production is due to increased levels of DHT.
  3. Prostate Enlargement and Cancer: Many studies have proven this. Though DHT is required for the normal development and maintenance of the prostate gland and the seminal vesicles, it’s also responsible for benign enlargement of prostate (BPH) and also prostate cancer.











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Diabetes signs and symptoms – Diagnose early and Prevent Complications

Early signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus often go undetected and un-noticed because they may not seem that serious!  Picking up these at an early stage is the key to prevent the occurrence or the progress of diabetes mellitus and thus prevent complications.

In this post, We will look into the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus both in men and women.

Here, by Diabetes, I refer mostly to Type II Diabetes Mellitus unless otherwise specified. The signs and symptoms of diabetes are mostly due to an elevated levels of glucose in bood, which is medically known as hyperglycemia.

In type 1 diabetes, the symptoms can develop very quickly and significantly over the course of weeks or even days, specially in adolescents and young adults.

In Type 2 diabetes the symptoms tend to develop more slowly, usually over a period of months or years. It can also start from pre-diabetic stage. We have discussed some important basics of diabetes and the types of diabetes like the pre-diabetic stage in our previous posts.

Now!  lets list out the Signs and symptoms of diabetes one by one! Please watch these signs carefully till the end, because you can not only prevent and control diabetes easily but these are also very good indicators of your blood sugar levels for treatment.

We will first look into the EARLY SIGNS & SYMPTOMS of Diabetes or Undiagnosed diabetes.

  1. The 3 P’s of Diabetes: Poyldipsia, Polyphagia and Polyuria.

Polydipsia means excessive thirst or excess drinking of water. Polydipsia is one of the earliest signs of diabetes. Of course, first you have to rule out other causes like dehydration, profuse sweating or the effect of certain medications.

Polyphagia or hyperphagia means excessive hunger or increased appetite. If this is the only symptom you have, rule out other causes like intensive exercise, depression, anxiety, stress and hyperthyroidism.

Polyuria means excessive urination or production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine – more than 3 litres a day compared to the normal daily urine output in adults of about one to two litres. Polyuria is one of the main symptoms of diabetes (both type 1 and type 2 diabetes) and can lead to severe dehydration, which if left untreated can affect kidney function.

  1. Fatigue or Extreme Tiredness that doesn’t disappear with rest or sleep can be an early symptom of diabetes. Of course you need to rule out other causes like lack of sleep and other diseases like anaemia, cancer and depression.

Symptoms of fatigue include:      – A lack of, or no energy, – Difficulty in carrying out simple everyday tasks, and – Feeling down or depressed.

  1. Unexplained weight loss that’s decrease in more than 5% of body weight that occurs unintentionally even without trying for it and can be an early warning sign of diabetes mellitus.
  2. Blurred Vision: This means loss of sharpness of vision and the inability to see fine details which can be one sided or bilateral. This has to be picked up and tested as early as possible and should never go untreated as it could be an indicator of another, more serious eye problem.
  3. Itching, specially around the genital area which is resistant to treatment with anti-allergic or antibiotics can be an indication of diabetes. Regular skin infections can also be a sign of diabetes like, bacterial infections in your eyelids, hair follicles, or even nails.
  4. Slow Healing of Cuts and Wounds can be a clue to pick up diabetes.
  5. Dizziness, Nausea and Vomitting can be some early symptoms of diabetes.

Now, Lets look into the symptoms of a well established or advanced diabetes. Apart from those we already discussed like the 3 P’s of diabetes, blurred vision, etc, the other symptoms are:

  1. Tingling or numbness in hands and feet.
  2. Erectile Dysfunction in men, like inability to achieve or maintain an erection. It can also be a symptom of many other health issues, including high blood pressure, stress, smoking, medication, etc.
  3. Urologic Issues like an overactive bladder and inability to control urination.
  4. Frequent or resistant urinary tract infections, which can lead to ascending infections to kidneys causing kidney infection medically known as pyelonephritis.
  5. Diabetes causes an increased risk for atherosclerosis or artery clogging which can lead to an increased incidence of cardiovascular disorders.
  6. Advanced Diabetes can affect every single organ in your body leading to many complication and multi-organ damages. We will discuss the complications of diabetes in another detailed episode.

Most of these signs and symptoms of diabetes are due reduced entry of glucose from the blood into cells to meet the energy needs of the body. You can check that detailed article on the basics of diabetes and the mechanism.

Stay Healthy!!


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In our previous post, we discussed the Basics of Diabetes Mellitus. In today’s article, we will look into the Types of Diabetes Mellitus and the Predisposing or the Risk Factors that can increase the risk of diabetes.
Please read this post till the end and you can avoid or prevent the occurrence of Diabetes Mellitus and also it helps in understanding the treatment of diabetes.

Now you know the mechanism of development of Diabetes Mellitus, we will proceed with the different types of diabetes. If you haven’t read my previous episode on how diabetes develops, please click right here.

What are the Types of Diabetes Mellitus?

There are actually three types of Diabetes Mellitus:

  2. TYPE 1 or Insulin Dependant Diabetes which constitutes about 5 to 10 percent of diabetics, and
  3. Type 2 Diabetes which is the most common type.

 Prediabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels are too high to be considered normal but not high enough to be labelled diabetes. This condition is diagnosed if the fasting blood glucose level is between 100 milligram/decilitre (mg/dL) and 125 mg/dL, OR if the blood glucose level 2 hours after a Glucose Tolerance Test is between 140 mg/dL and 199 mg/dL.
So, Why is this important?  This is very important because Pre-diabetics are prone to a higher risk of future diabetes as well as heart disease.

Can you prevent the development of Diabetes at this stage?
Yes, you can by reducing your body weight by 5 to 10% through diet and exercise. This can significantly reduce the risk of developing future diabetes. If you are around the age of 30 to 50 and have not yet tested your blood glucose levels, get a simple Fasting blood sugar level done. You can even use home glucometers or get it tested at a hospital lab!

What is Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?
It was formerly called insulin dependant diabetes or or juvenile-onset diabetes.
In type 1 diabetes, your pancreas doesn’t produce the hormone insulin, because the body’s immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, and more than 90% of them are permanently destroyed. Only about 5 to 10% of all people with diabetes have type 1 disease. Most people who have type 1 diabetes develop the disease before age 30, although it can develop later in life.

What is Type 2 Diabetes?
It was formerly called non– insulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes.  This is the most common type of Diabetes.
In type 2 Diabetes, Pancreas produces the hormone  insulin,  but, your cells do not respond to the insulin the way they should. The body develops resistance to the effects of insulin, so there is not enough insulin to meet the body’s needs. As type 2 diabetes progresses, the insulin-producing ability of the pancreas decreases and hence advanced type 2 diabetics have to take insulin injections.

Type 2 Diabetes usually begins in people older than 30 and becomes progressively more common with age.

Some important Risk Factors or predisposing factors that can lead to Type 2 diabetes:

  1. Genetics: Type 2 Diabetes tends to run in families.
  2. Race: People of certain racial and ethnic backgrounds like blacks, Asian Americans, American Indians, and people of Spanish or Latin American ancestry are more prone that the Whites.
  3. OBESITY: This is a major risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes, and 80 to 90% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. Because obesity causes insulin resistance, obese people need very large amounts of insulin to maintain normal blood glucose levels. If you are a diabetic on treatment, remember, the dose of insulin depends on this factor.
  4. People with Sedentary Lifestyle and who do not exercise.
  5. In fact, smokers are 30–40% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than non-smokers.
  6. People with High Blood Pressure.
  7. People with low HDL cholesterol, e the good cholesterol.
  8. People with high blood triglyceride or fat levels.
  9. Women who had gestational diabetes or delivered a large baby weighing 9 pounds or more.
  10. People with Depression
  11. People who had PCOS, i.e Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
  12. People who have Acanthosis nigricans. This is a condition characterized by dark, thick, and velvety skin around your neck or armpits.

Stay Healthy!!

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Understanding Basics of Diabetes Mellitus – Causes and Mechanism

Today we will look into some basics of Diabetes Mellitus like, What is Diabetes, What are the causes of diabetes and what are the different types of Diabetes. Understanding this basic knowledge and mechanism is very important from the point of view of prevention, and treatment of this deadly disease which affects almost all organs in your body.

What is Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus?

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic (long standing) disorder in which blood sugar or glucose levels are abnormally and persistently high because the body does not produce the hormone insulin sufficiently to meet its requirements.
We call it Diabetes Mellitus or in short DM, because there exists another disorder called Diabetes Insipidus which is a rare disorder that does not affect blood glucose levels but, just like diabetes mellitus, also causes increased urination. This occurs due to lack of the hormone vasopressin (also called Anti-Diuretic Hormone or ADH) that causes excessive production of very dilute urine (that’s called Polyuria).

Now to understand the Mechanism of what causes Diabetes, we need to look into some basics, like the relationship between Glucose in the blood and the hormone Insulin. Please stay hooked!, as this knowledge is very important for prevention and treatment of diabetes. This means this is equally important for both diabetics, pre-diabetics and even non-diabetics like youngers to prevent the occurrence of diabetes in later part of their life.

The three major nutrients present in our food are Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fat. Carbohydrates are the starches and sugars which can be simple sugars like monosaccharides to complex sugars like polysaccharides.
Let’s quickly look into this biochemical classification of carbohydrates as:

  1. Monosaccharides or single sugars or simple sugars (for example Glucose, Fructose and Galactose)
  2. Disaccharides or double sugars
  3. Oligosaccharides and
  4. Polysaccharides

Whatever it is, these sugars are broken down into simple sugars like glucose by enzymes in the digestive tract before the body can absorb them.
So after absorption, everything is converted to glucose, which is the most important source of energy for the body. This glucose is transported through the bloodstream and taken up by cells for their functions.
Remember, one most important point – The body can also make glucose from fats and proteins and similarly, If all the glucose is not needed for energy, some of it is stored in fat cells and in the liver as glycogen

So, Now! What is INSULIN?
Insulin is a hormone produced by our digestive organ – Pancreas. This organ Pancreas is located behind the stomach that also produces many digestive enzymes which help in the digestive process. Insulin is secreted by specialized cell in pancreas called islet cells of pancreas.

This hormone insulin helps glucose to move from the blood into the cells.

The levels of glucose in the blood vary normally throughout the day. They rise after a meal and return to pre-meal levels within about 2 hours after eating. Once the levels of glucose in the blood return to premeal levels, insulin production decreases. The variation in blood glucose levels is usually within a narrow range, about 70 to 110 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of blood in healthy people. If people eat a large amount of carbohydrates, the levels may increase more. People older than 65 years tend to have slightly higher levels, especially after eating.

If the body does not produce enough insulin, the glucose from blood does not  to move into the cells, or if the cells can sometimes stop responding normally to this action of insulin which is called insulin resistance.
This is the cause for high levels of glucose in the blood in Diabetes Mellitus and this  inadequate amount of glucose inside the cells produces the classical signs and symptoms of diabetes and responsible for multi organ damage in diabetes.

In our next posts, we will discuss on What is Pre-Diabetes,  Types of Diabetes, Signs and symptoms of Diabetes and the treatment options for Diabetes Mellitus. Please follow our Playlist on Diabetes.

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